This is the wiki page describing the algorithm used for encrypting of the wallet.dat used in the original Bitcoin client.
Wallet encryption uses AES-256-CBC to encrypt only the private keys that are held in a wallet. The keys are encrypted with a master key which is entirely random. This master key is then encrypted with AES-256-CBC with a key derived from the passphrase using SHA512 and OpenSSL's EVP_BytesToKey and a dynamic number of rounds determined by the speed of the machine which does the initial encryption (and is updated based on the speed of a computer which does a subsequent passphrase change). Although the underlying code supports multiple encrypted copies of the same master key (and thus multiple passphrases) the client does not yet have a method to add additional passphrases.
At runtime, the client loads the wallet as it normally would, however the keystore stores the keys in encrypted form. When the passphrase is required (to top up keypool or send coins) it will either be queried by a GUI prompt, or must first be entered with the walletpassphrase RPC command. This will change the wallet to "unlocked" state where the unencrypted master key is stored in memory (in the case of GUI, only for long enough to complete the requested operation, in RPC, for as long as is specified by the second parameter to walletpassphrase). The wallet is then locked (or can be manually locked using the walletlock RPC command) and the unencrypted master key is removed from memory.
Implementation details of wallet encryption
When the wallet is locked, calls to sendtoaddress, sendfrom, sendmany, and keypoolrefill will return Error -13: "Error: Please enter the wallet passphrase with walletpassphrase first."
When the wallet is unlocked, calls to walletpassphrase will fail.
When a wallet is encrypted, the passphrase is required to top up the keypool, thus, if the passphrase is rarely entered, it is possible that keypool might run out. In this case, the default key will be used as the target for payouts for mining, and calls to getnewaddress and getaccount address will return an error. In order to prevent such cases, the keypool is automatically refilled when walletpassphrase is called with a correct passphrase and when topupkeypool is called (while the wallet is unlocked). Note that the keypool continues to be topped up on various occasions when a new key from pool is used and the wallet is unlocked (or unencrypted).