Difference between revisions of "API reference (JSON-RPC)"

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== Controlling Bitcoin ==
+
== Controlling Bitcoin Core ==
  
 
Run ''bitcoind'' or ''bitcoin-qt -server''. You can control it via the command-line bitcoin-cli utility or by [http://json-rpc.org/wiki/specification HTTP JSON-RPC] commands.
 
Run ''bitcoind'' or ''bitcoin-qt -server''. You can control it via the command-line bitcoin-cli utility or by [http://json-rpc.org/wiki/specification HTTP JSON-RPC] commands.
Line 33: Line 33:
 
See the [[Proper Money Handling (JSON-RPC)|proper money handling page]] for notes on avoiding rounding errors when handling bitcoin values.
 
See the [[Proper Money Handling (JSON-RPC)|proper money handling page]] for notes on avoiding rounding errors when handling bitcoin values.
  
== Python ==
+
== Languages ==
 +
 
 +
=== Python ===
  
 
[http://json-rpc.org/wiki/python-json-rpc python-jsonrpc] is the official JSON-RPC implementation for Python.
 
[http://json-rpc.org/wiki/python-json-rpc python-jsonrpc] is the official JSON-RPC implementation for Python.
Line 57: Line 59:
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
== Ruby ==
+
=== Ruby ===
  
 
<source lang="ruby">
 
<source lang="ruby">
Line 98: Line 100:
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
== PHP ==
+
=== Erlang ===
 +
Get the rebar dependency from https://github.com/edescourtis/ebitcoind . By default the client will use the configuration in <code>$HOME/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf</code> or you can instead specify a URI like this:
 +
<source lang="erlang">ebitcoind:start_link(<<"http://user:password@localhost:8332/">>).</source>
 +
 
 +
Here is a usage example:
 +
<source lang="erlang">
 +
1> {ok,Pid} = ebitcoind:start_link().
 +
{ok,<0.177.0>}
 +
2> ebitcoind:getbalance(Pid).
 +
8437.02478294
 +
3> ebitcoind:getinfo(Pid).
 +
{ok, #{<<"balance">> => 8437.02478294,
 +
  <<"blocks">> => 260404,
 +
  <<"connections">> => 8,
 +
  <<"difficulty">> => 148819199.80509263,
 +
  <<"errors">> => <<>>,
 +
  <<"keypoololdest">> => 1420307921,
 +
  <<"keypoolsize">> => 102,
 +
  <<"paytxfee">> => 0.0,
 +
  <<"protocolversion">> => 70002,
 +
  <<"proxy">> => <<>>,
 +
  <<"relayfee">> => 1.0e-5,
 +
  <<"testnet">> => false,
 +
  <<"timeoffset">> => -3,
 +
  <<"version">> => 90300,
 +
  <<"walletversion">> => 60000}}
 +
4> ebitcoind:setgenerate(Pid,true).
 +
{ok, null}
 +
5> ebitcoind:getblocktemplate(Pid, #{}).                   
 +
{ok,#{<<"bits">> => <<"181b0dca">>,
 +
      <<"coinbaseaux">> => #{<<"flags">> => <<"062f503253482f">>},
 +
      <<"coinbasevalue">> => 2518690558,
 +
      <<"curtime">> => 1420421249,
 +
      <<"height">> => 337533,
 +
      <<"mintime">> => 1420416332,
 +
      <<"mutable">> => [<<"time">>,<<"transactions">>,<<"prevblock">>],
 +
      <<"noncerange">> => <<"00000000ffffffff">>,
 +
      <<"previousblockhash">> => <<"000000000000000017ce0a0d328bf84cc597785844393e899e9a971a81679a5f">>,
 +
      <<"sigoplimit">> => 20000,
 +
      <<"sizelimit">> => 1000000,
 +
      <<"target">> => <<"00000000000000001b0dca00000000000000000000000000000000000000"...>>,
 +
      <<"transactions">> => [#{<<"data">> => <<"01000000049b47ce225d29bff7c18b7df7d7df4693523a52"...>>,
 +
        <<"depends">> => [],
 +
        <<"fee">> => 0,
 +
        <<"hash">> => <<"6d0d76e1f27b3a6f7325923710dcdb4107c9"...>>,
 +
        <<"sigops">> => 1},
 +
      ...
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
=== PHP ===
  
 
The [http://jsonrpcphp.org/ JSON-RPC PHP] library also makes it very easy to connect to Bitcoin.  For example:
 
The [http://jsonrpcphp.org/ JSON-RPC PHP] library also makes it very easy to connect to Bitcoin.  For example:
Line 115: Line 166:
 
'''Note:''' The jsonRPCClient library uses fopen() and will throw an exception saying "Unable to connect" if it receives a 404 or 500 error from bitcoind. This prevents you from being able to see error messages generated by bitcoind (as they are sent with status 404 or 500). The [https://github.com/aceat64/EasyBitcoin-PHP EasyBitcoin-PHP library] is similar in function to JSON-RPC PHP but does not have this issue.
 
'''Note:''' The jsonRPCClient library uses fopen() and will throw an exception saying "Unable to connect" if it receives a 404 or 500 error from bitcoind. This prevents you from being able to see error messages generated by bitcoind (as they are sent with status 404 or 500). The [https://github.com/aceat64/EasyBitcoin-PHP EasyBitcoin-PHP library] is similar in function to JSON-RPC PHP but does not have this issue.
  
== Java ==
+
=== Java ===
  
 
The easiest way to tell Java to use HTTP Basic authentication is to set a default Authenticator:
 
The easiest way to tell Java to use HTTP Basic authentication is to set a default Authenticator:
Line 132: Line 183:
 
Once that is done, [http://json-rpc.org/wiki/implementations any JSON-RPC library for Java] (or ordinary URL POSTs) may be used to communicate with the Bitcoin server.
 
Once that is done, [http://json-rpc.org/wiki/implementations any JSON-RPC library for Java] (or ordinary URL POSTs) may be used to communicate with the Bitcoin server.
  
Instead to write your wrapper you can use [[Bitcoin-JSON-RPC-Client|this implementation]] or [https://github.com/johannbarbie/BitcoindClient4J this one] .
+
Instead of writing your own implementation, consider using one of the existing wrappers like [https://github.com/johannbarbie/BitcoindClient4J BitcoindClient4J], [https://github.com/priiduneemre/btcd-cli4j btcd-cli4j] or [[Bitcoin-JSON-RPC-Client|Bitcoin-JSON-RPC-Client]] instead.
  
== Perl ==
+
=== Perl ===
  
 
The JSON::RPC package from CPAN can be used to communicate with Bitcoin.  You must set the client's credentials; for example:
 
The JSON::RPC package from CPAN can be used to communicate with Bitcoin.  You must set the client's credentials; for example:
Line 164: Line 215:
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
== Go ==
+
=== Go ===
  
The [https://github.com/conformal/btcrpcclient btcrpcclient package] can be used to communicate with Bitcoin.  You must provide credentials to match the client you are communicating with.
+
The [https://github.com/btcsuite/btcrpcclient btcrpcclient package] can be used to communicate with Bitcoin.  You must provide credentials to match the client you are communicating with.
  
 
<source lang="go">
 
<source lang="go">
Line 172: Line 223:
  
 
import (
 
import (
"github.com/conformal/btcnet"
+
"github.com/btcsuite/btcd/chaincfg"
"github.com/conformal/btcrpcclient"
+
"github.com/btcsuite/btcrpcclient"
"github.com/conformal/btcutil"
+
"github.com/btcsuite/btcutil"
 
"log"
 
"log"
 
)
 
)
Line 181: Line 232:
 
// create new client instance
 
// create new client instance
 
client, err := btcrpcclient.New(&btcrpcclient.ConnConfig{
 
client, err := btcrpcclient.New(&btcrpcclient.ConnConfig{
HttpPostMode: true,
+
HTTPPostMode: true,
 
DisableTLS:  true,
 
DisableTLS:  true,
 
Host:        "127.0.0.1:8332",
 
Host:        "127.0.0.1:8332",
Line 202: Line 253:
  
 
// prepare a sendMany transaction
 
// prepare a sendMany transaction
receiver1, err := btcutil.DecodeAddress("1someAddressThatIsActuallyReal", &btcnet.MainNetParams)
+
receiver1, err := btcutil.DecodeAddress("1someAddressThatIsActuallyReal", &chaincfg.MainNetParams)
 
if err != nil {
 
if err != nil {
 
log.Fatalf("address receiver1 seems to be invalid: %v", err)
 
log.Fatalf("address receiver1 seems to be invalid: %v", err)
 
}
 
}
receiver2, err := btcutil.DecodeAddress("1anotherAddressThatsPrettyReal", &btcnet.MainNetParams)
+
receiver2, err := btcutil.DecodeAddress("1anotherAddressThatsPrettyReal", &chaincfg.MainNetParams)
 
if err != nil {
 
if err != nil {
 
log.Fatalf("address receiver2 seems to be invalid: %v", err)
 
log.Fatalf("address receiver2 seems to be invalid: %v", err)
Line 224: Line 275:
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
== .NET (C#) ==
+
=== .NET (C#) ===
 
The communication with the RPC service can be achieved using the standard http request/response objects.
 
The communication with the RPC service can be achieved using the standard http request/response objects.
A library for serialising and deserializing Json will make your life a lot easier:
+
A library for serializing and deserializing Json will make your life a lot easier:
  
Json.Net ( http://james.newtonking.com/json ) is a high performance JSON package for .Net.  It is also available via NuGet from the package manager console ( Install-Package Newtonsoft.Json ).
+
Json.NET ( http://james.newtonking.com/json ) is a high performance JSON package for .NET.  It is also available via NuGet from the package manager console ( Install-Package Newtonsoft.Json ).
  
The following example uses Json.Net:
+
The following example uses Json.NET:
  
 
<source lang="csharp">
 
<source lang="csharp">
Line 287: Line 338:
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
A more complete library and wrapper for Bitcoin (also for Litecoin and all Bitcoin clones) is [https://github.com/GeorgeKimionis/BitcoinLib BitcoinLib] (https://github.com/GeorgeKimionis/BitcoinLib) which is also available via [https://www.nuget.org/packages/BitcoinLib/ NuGet] from the package manager console (Install-Package BitcoinLib).  
+
A more complete library and wrapper for Bitcoin is [https://github.com/GeorgeKimionis/BitcoinLib BitcoinLib] (https://github.com/GeorgeKimionis/BitcoinLib) which is also available via [https://www.nuget.org/packages/BitcoinLib/ NuGet] from the package manager console (Install-Package BitcoinLib).  
  
 
Querying the daemon with [https://github.com/GeorgeKimionis/BitcoinLib BitcoinLib] is as simple as:
 
Querying the daemon with [https://github.com/GeorgeKimionis/BitcoinLib BitcoinLib] is as simple as:
Line 294: Line 345:
 
     IBitcoinService bitcoinService = new BitcoinService();
 
     IBitcoinService bitcoinService = new BitcoinService();
  
     double networkDifficulty = bitcoinService.GetDifficulty();
+
     var networkDifficulty = bitcoinService.GetDifficulty();
     decimal myBalance = bitcoinService.GetBalance();
+
     var myBalance = bitcoinService.GetBalance();
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
== Node.js ==
+
=== Node.js ===
  
* [https://github.com/freewil/node-bitcoin node-bitcoin] (npm: bitcoin)  
+
* [https://github.com/ruimarinho/bitcoin-core bitcoin-core] (npm: [https://www.npmjs.com/package/bitcoin-core bitcoin-core])  
  
Example using node-bitcoin:
+
Example using bitcoin-core:
  
 
<source lang="javascript">
 
<source lang="javascript">
var bitcoin = require('bitcoin');
+
const Client = require('bitcoin-core');
var client = new bitcoin.Client({
+
const client = new Client({  
   host: 'localhost',
+
   network: 'regtest',  
   port: 8332,
+
   username: 'user',  
   user: 'user',
+
   password: 'pass',  
   pass: 'pass'
+
   port: 18443
 
});
 
});
  
client.getDifficulty(function(err, difficulty) {
+
client.getBlockchainInfo().then((help) => console.log(help));
  if (err) {
 
    return console.error(err);
 
  }
 
 
 
  console.log('Difficulty: ' + difficulty);
 
});
 
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
Example using Kapitalize:
+
=== Command line (cURL) ===
 
 
<source lang='javascript'>
 
var client = require('kapitalize')()
 
 
 
client.auth('user', 'password')
 
 
 
client
 
.getInfo()
 
.getDifficulty(function(err, difficulty) {
 
  console.log('Dificulty: ', difficulty)
 
})
 
</source>
 
 
 
== Command line (cURL) ==
 
  
 
You can also send commands and see results using [http://curl.haxx.se/ cURL] or some other command-line HTTP-fetching utility; for example:
 
You can also send commands and see results using [http://curl.haxx.se/ cURL] or some other command-line HTTP-fetching utility; for example:
Line 349: Line 380:
 
<source lang="javascript">
 
<source lang="javascript">
 
   {"result":{"balance":0.000000000000000,"blocks":59952,"connections":48,"proxy":"","generate":false,
 
   {"result":{"balance":0.000000000000000,"blocks":59952,"connections":48,"proxy":"","generate":false,
     "genproclimit":-1,"difficulty":16.61907875185736,"error":null,"id":"curltest"}
+
     "genproclimit":-1,"difficulty":16.61907875185736},"error":null,"id":"curltest"}
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
=== Command line (jsonrpc-cli) ===
 +
 
 +
[https://github.com/dan-da/jsonrpc-cli jsonrpc-cli] provides simple json queries from the command-line with highlighted json results (colors) and the ability to view/debug raw http requests and responses.
 +
 
 +
<source lang="bash">
 +
jsonrpc-cli --user=rpcuser --pass=rpcpassword  http://localhost:8332/ getinfo
 +
</source>
 +
 
 +
<source lang="javascript">
 +
{
 +
    "version": 109900,
 +
    "protocolversion": 70002,
 +
    "walletversion": 60000,
 +
    "balance": 0,
 +
    "blocks": 588597,
 +
    "timeoffset": -1,
 +
    "connections": 9,
 +
    "proxy": "127.0.0.1:9050",
 +
    "difficulty": 9013786945891.682,
 +
    "testnet": false,
 +
    "keypoololdest": 1463279619,
 +
    "keypoolsize": 101,
 +
    "paytxfee": 0,
 +
    "relayfee": 1.0e-5,
 +
    "errors": null
 +
}
 
</source>
 
</source>
  
== Clojure ==
+
=== Clojure ===
  
 
[https://github.com/aviad/clj-btc clj-btc] is a Clojure wrapper for the bitcoin API.
 
[https://github.com/aviad/clj-btc clj-btc] is a Clojure wrapper for the bitcoin API.
Line 366: Line 425:
 
  "walletversion" 60000}
 
  "walletversion" 60000}
 
</source>
 
</source>
 +
 +
=== C ===
 +
The C API for processing JSON is [https://jansson.readthedocs.org/en/latest/ Jansson]. C applications like [https://github.com/bitcoin/libblkmaker libblkmaker] use [[API_reference_(JSON-RPC)#Command_line_.28cURL.29|cURL]] for making the calls and Jansson for interpreting the JSON that cURL fetches.
 +
 +
For example basic usage (which can be easily modified for Bitcoin RPC), see the Jansson example [https://jansson.readthedocs.org/en/latest/_downloads/github_commits.c github_commits.c] and [https://jansson.readthedocs.org/en/latest/tutorial.html#the-github-repo-commits-api the associated tutorial].
 +
 +
The following does with libcurl what the [[API_reference_(JSON-RPC)#Command_line_.28cURL.29|cURL example above]] does:<source lang="c">#include <stdlib.h>
 +
 +
#include <curl/curl.h>
 +
 +
int main()
 +
{
 +
    CURL *curl = curl_easy_init();
 +
    struct curl_slist *headers = NULL;
 +
 +
    if (curl) {
 +
const char *data =
 +
    "{\"jsonrpc\": \"1.0\", \"id\":\"curltest\", \"method\": \"getinfo\", \"params\": [] }";
 +
 +
headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "content-type: text/plain;");
 +
curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, headers);
 +
 +
curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_URL, "http://127.0.0.1:8332/");
 +
 +
curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDSIZE, (long) strlen(data));
 +
curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, data);
 +
 +
curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_USERPWD,
 +
"bitcoinrpcUSERNAME:bitcoinrpcPASSWORD");
 +
 +
curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_USE_SSL, CURLUSESSL_TRY);
 +
 +
curl_easy_perform(curl);
 +
    }
 +
    return 0;
 +
}
 +
</source>This output can be parsed with Jansson, ''à la'' the Jansson tutorial linked to above.
 +
 +
(source: [https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/a/41158/4334 Bitcoin StackExchange])
 +
 +
=== Qt/C++ ===
 +
 +
[https://bitbucket.org/devonit/qjsonrpc/overview QJsonRpc] is a Qt/C++ implementation of the JSON-RPC protocol. It integrates nicely with Qt, leveraging Qt's meta object system in order to provide services over the JSON-RPC protocol. QJsonRpc is licensed under the LGPLv2.1.
 +
 +
<source lang="cpp">
 +
/*
 +
* Copyright (C) 2012-2013 Matt Broadstone
 +
* Contact: http://bitbucket.org/devonit/qjsonrpc
 +
*
 +
* This file is part of the QJsonRpc Library.
 +
*
 +
* This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 +
* modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
 +
* License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 +
* version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 +
*
 +
* This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 +
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 +
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 +
* Lesser General Public License for more details.
 +
*/
 +
#include <QCoreApplication>
 +
#include <QAuthenticator>
 +
#include <QStringList>
 +
#include <QDebug>
 +
 +
#include "qjsonrpchttpclient.h"
 +
 +
class HttpClient : public QJsonRpcHttpClient
 +
{
 +
    Q_OBJECT
 +
public:
 +
    HttpClient(const QString &endpoint, QObject *parent = 0)
 +
        : QJsonRpcHttpClient(endpoint, parent)
 +
    {
 +
        // defaults added for my local test server
 +
        m_username = "bitcoinrpc";
 +
        m_password = "232fb3276bbb7437d265298ea48bdc46";
 +
    }
 +
 +
    void setUsername(const QString &username) {
 +
        m_username = username;
 +
    }
 +
 +
    void setPassword(const QString &password) {
 +
        m_password = password;
 +
    }
 +
 +
private Q_SLOTS:
 +
    virtual void handleAuthenticationRequired(QNetworkReply *reply, QAuthenticator * authenticator)
 +
    {
 +
        Q_UNUSED(reply)
 +
        authenticator->setUser(m_username);
 +
        authenticator->setPassword(m_password);
 +
    }
 +
 +
private:
 +
    QString m_username;
 +
    QString m_password;
 +
 +
};
 +
 +
int main(int argc, char **argv)
 +
{
 +
    QCoreApplication app(argc, argv);
 +
    if (app.arguments().size() < 2) {
 +
        qDebug() << "usage: " << argv[0] << "[-u username] [-p password] <command> <arguments>";
 +
        return -1;
 +
    }
 +
 +
    HttpClient client("http://127.0.0.1:8332");
 +
    if (app.arguments().contains("-u")) {
 +
        int idx = app.arguments().indexOf("-u");
 +
        app.arguments().removeAt(idx);
 +
        if(idx<app.arguments().count())
 +
              client.setUsername(app.arguments().takeAt(idx));
 +
        else qDebug()<<"-u value not defined";
 +
    }
 +
 +
    if (app.arguments().contains("-p")) {
 +
        int idx = app.arguments().indexOf("-p");
 +
        app.arguments().removeAt(idx);
 +
        if(idx<app.arguments().count())
 +
            client.setPassword(app.arguments().takeAt(idx));
 +
        else qDebug()<<"-p value not defined";
 +
    }
 +
 +
    QJsonRpcMessage message = QJsonRpcMessage::createRequest(app.arguments().at(1));
 +
    QJsonRpcMessage response = client.sendMessageBlocking(message);
 +
    if (response.type() == QJsonRpcMessage::Error) {
 +
        qDebug() << response.errorData();
 +
        return -1;
 +
    }
 +
 +
    qDebug() << response.toJson();
 +
}
 +
</source>
 +
 +
== Multi-wallet RPC calls ==
 +
 +
[[Bitcoin Knots]] 0.13.1 added support for loading multiple, separate wallets.
 +
Multi-wallet can be enabled by using more than one <code>-wallet</code> argument when starting Bitcoin, either on the command line or in the Bitcoin config file.
 +
This was also included in [[Bitcoin Core]] 0.15.
 +
 +
Wallet-level RPC calls (like <code>importaddress</code> or <code>listtransactions</code>) can specify which wallet file will be accessed. This is done by setting the HTTP endpoint in the JSON-RPC request in the format <code><RPC IP address>:<RPC port>/wallet/<wallet name></code>, for example <code>https://127.0.0.1:8332/wallet/wallet1.dat</code>.
 +
 +
The command line utility bitcoin-cli can specify the wallet file using the <code>-rpcwallet</code> flag, for example <code>bitcoin-cli -rpcwallet=wallet1.dat getbalance</code>
 +
 +
For more details see the [https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/doc/release-notes/release-notes-0.15.0.md#multi-wallet-support Bitcoin Core 0.15 release notes]
 +
 +
Alternatively (but not available in Bitcoin Core at this time), an additional parameter can be specified to <code>-rpcauth</code> naming a default wallet for JSON-RPC accesses to the normal endpoint.
  
 
== See Also==
 
== See Also==
 +
 +
* The Bitcoin Core documentation: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/doc/JSON-RPC-interface.md#json-rpc-interface
 +
* The Bitcoin Core RPC help for each call: https://bitcoincore.org/en/doc/
 +
* The Bitcoin Core RPC error codes: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/master/src/rpc/protocol.h
 +
* Bitcoin Core RPC API version changes https://masonicboom.github.io/btcrpcapi/
  
 
* [[Original_Bitcoin_client/API_Calls_list|API calls list]]
 
* [[Original_Bitcoin_client/API_Calls_list|API calls list]]
Line 380: Line 595:
 
[[Category:Developer]]
 
[[Category:Developer]]
 
[[zh-cn:API_reference_(JSON-RPC)]]
 
[[zh-cn:API_reference_(JSON-RPC)]]
 +
 +
{{Bitcoin Core documentation}}

Latest revision as of 17:07, 4 August 2019

Controlling Bitcoin Core

Run bitcoind or bitcoin-qt -server. You can control it via the command-line bitcoin-cli utility or by HTTP JSON-RPC commands.

You must create a bitcoin.conf configuration file setting an rpcuser and rpcpassword; see Running Bitcoin for details.

Now run:

 $ ./bitcoind -daemon
 bitcoin server starting
 $ ./bitcoin-cli -rpcwait help
 # shows the help text

A list of RPC calls will be shown.

 $ ./bitcoin-cli getbalance
 2000.00000

If you are learning the API, it is a very good idea to use the test network (run bitcoind -testnet and bitcoin-cli -testnet).

JSON-RPC

Running Bitcoin with the -server argument (or running bitcoind) tells it to function as a HTTP JSON-RPC server, but Basic access authentication must be used when communicating with it, and, for security, by default, the server only accepts connections from other processes on the same machine. If your HTTP or JSON library requires you to specify which 'realm' is authenticated, use 'jsonrpc'.

Bitcoin supports SSL (https) JSON-RPC connections beginning with version 0.3.14. See the rpcssl wiki page for setup instructions and a list of all bitcoin.conf configuration options.

Allowing arbitrary machines to access the JSON-RPC port (using the rpcallowip configuration option) is dangerous and strongly discouraged-- access should be strictly limited to trusted machines.

To access the server you should find a suitable library for your language.

Proper money handling

See the proper money handling page for notes on avoiding rounding errors when handling bitcoin values.

Languages

Python

python-jsonrpc is the official JSON-RPC implementation for Python. It automatically generates Python methods for RPC calls. However, due to its design for supporting old versions of Python, it is also rather inefficient. jgarzik has forked it as Python-BitcoinRPC and optimized it for current versions. Generally, this version is recommended.

While BitcoinRPC lacks a few obscure features from jsonrpc, software using only the ServiceProxy class can be written the same to work with either version the user might choose to install:

from jsonrpc import ServiceProxy
  
access = ServiceProxy("http://user:password@127.0.0.1:8332")
access.getinfo()
access.listreceivedbyaddress(6)
#access.sendtoaddress("11yEmxiMso2RsFVfBcCa616npBvGgxiBX", 10)

The latest version of python-bitcoinrpc has a new syntax.

from bitcoinrpc.authproxy import AuthServiceProxy

Ruby

require 'net/http'
require 'uri'
require 'json'

class BitcoinRPC
  def initialize(service_url)
    @uri = URI.parse(service_url)
  end

  def method_missing(name, *args)
    post_body = { 'method' => name, 'params' => args, 'id' => 'jsonrpc' }.to_json
    resp = JSON.parse( http_post_request(post_body) )
    raise JSONRPCError, resp['error'] if resp['error']
    resp['result']
  end

  def http_post_request(post_body)
    http    = Net::HTTP.new(@uri.host, @uri.port)
    request = Net::HTTP::Post.new(@uri.request_uri)
    request.basic_auth @uri.user, @uri.password
    request.content_type = 'application/json'
    request.body = post_body
    http.request(request).body
  end

  class JSONRPCError < RuntimeError; end
end

if $0 == __FILE__
  h = BitcoinRPC.new('http://user:password@127.0.0.1:8332')
  p h.getbalance
  p h.getinfo
  p h.getnewaddress
  p h.dumpprivkey( h.getnewaddress )
  # also see: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Original_Bitcoin_client/API_Calls_list
end

Erlang

Get the rebar dependency from https://github.com/edescourtis/ebitcoind . By default the client will use the configuration in $HOME/.bitcoin/bitcoin.conf or you can instead specify a URI like this:

ebitcoind:start_link(<<"http://user:password@localhost:8332/">>).

Here is a usage example:

1> {ok,Pid} = ebitcoind:start_link().
{ok,<0.177.0>}
2> ebitcoind:getbalance(Pid).
8437.02478294
3> ebitcoind:getinfo(Pid).
{ok, #{<<"balance">> => 8437.02478294,
  <<"blocks">> => 260404,
  <<"connections">> => 8,
  <<"difficulty">> => 148819199.80509263,
  <<"errors">> => <<>>,
  <<"keypoololdest">> => 1420307921,
  <<"keypoolsize">> => 102,
  <<"paytxfee">> => 0.0,
  <<"protocolversion">> => 70002,
  <<"proxy">> => <<>>,
  <<"relayfee">> => 1.0e-5,
  <<"testnet">> => false,
  <<"timeoffset">> => -3,
  <<"version">> => 90300,
  <<"walletversion">> => 60000}}
4> ebitcoind:setgenerate(Pid,true).
{ok, null}
5> ebitcoind:getblocktemplate(Pid, #{}).                     
{ok,#{<<"bits">> => <<"181b0dca">>,
      <<"coinbaseaux">> => #{<<"flags">> => <<"062f503253482f">>},
      <<"coinbasevalue">> => 2518690558,
      <<"curtime">> => 1420421249,
      <<"height">> => 337533,
      <<"mintime">> => 1420416332,
      <<"mutable">> => [<<"time">>,<<"transactions">>,<<"prevblock">>],
      <<"noncerange">> => <<"00000000ffffffff">>,
      <<"previousblockhash">> => <<"000000000000000017ce0a0d328bf84cc597785844393e899e9a971a81679a5f">>,
      <<"sigoplimit">> => 20000,
      <<"sizelimit">> => 1000000,
      <<"target">> => <<"00000000000000001b0dca00000000000000000000000000000000000000"...>>,
      <<"transactions">> => [#{<<"data">> => <<"01000000049b47ce225d29bff7c18b7df7d7df4693523a52"...>>,
         <<"depends">> => [],
         <<"fee">> => 0,
         <<"hash">> => <<"6d0d76e1f27b3a6f7325923710dcdb4107c9"...>>,
         <<"sigops">> => 1},
      ...

PHP

The JSON-RPC PHP library also makes it very easy to connect to Bitcoin. For example:

  require_once 'jsonRPCClient.php';
  
  $bitcoin = new jsonRPCClient('http://user:password@127.0.0.1:8332/');
   
  echo "<pre>\n";
  print_r($bitcoin->getinfo()); echo "\n";
  echo "Received: ".$bitcoin->getreceivedbylabel("Your Address")."\n";
  echo "</pre>";

Note: The jsonRPCClient library uses fopen() and will throw an exception saying "Unable to connect" if it receives a 404 or 500 error from bitcoind. This prevents you from being able to see error messages generated by bitcoind (as they are sent with status 404 or 500). The EasyBitcoin-PHP library is similar in function to JSON-RPC PHP but does not have this issue.

Java

The easiest way to tell Java to use HTTP Basic authentication is to set a default Authenticator:

  final String rpcuser ="...";
  final String rpcpassword ="...";
  
  Authenticator.setDefault(new Authenticator() {
      protected PasswordAuthentication getPasswordAuthentication() {
          return new PasswordAuthentication (rpcuser, rpcpassword.toCharArray());
      }
  });

Once that is done, any JSON-RPC library for Java (or ordinary URL POSTs) may be used to communicate with the Bitcoin server.

Instead of writing your own implementation, consider using one of the existing wrappers like BitcoindClient4J, btcd-cli4j or Bitcoin-JSON-RPC-Client instead.

Perl

The JSON::RPC package from CPAN can be used to communicate with Bitcoin. You must set the client's credentials; for example:

  use JSON::RPC::Client;
  use Data::Dumper;
   
  my $client = new JSON::RPC::Client;
  
  $client->ua->credentials(
     'localhost:8332', 'jsonrpc', 'user' => 'password'  # REPLACE WITH YOUR bitcoin.conf rpcuser/rpcpassword
      );
  
  my $uri = 'http://localhost:8332/';
  my $obj = {
      method  => 'getinfo',
      params  => [],
   };
   
  my $res = $client->call( $uri, $obj );
   
  if ($res){
      if ($res->is_error) { print "Error : ", $res->error_message; }
      else { print Dumper($res->result); }
  } else {
      print $client->status_line;
  }

Go

The btcrpcclient package can be used to communicate with Bitcoin. You must provide credentials to match the client you are communicating with.

package main

import (
	"github.com/btcsuite/btcd/chaincfg"
	"github.com/btcsuite/btcrpcclient"
	"github.com/btcsuite/btcutil"
	"log"
)

func main() {
	// create new client instance
	client, err := btcrpcclient.New(&btcrpcclient.ConnConfig{
		HTTPPostMode: true,
		DisableTLS:   true,
		Host:         "127.0.0.1:8332",
		User:         "rpcUsername",
		Pass:         "rpcPassword",
	}, nil)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("error creating new btc client: %v", err)
	}

	// list accounts
	accounts, err := client.ListAccounts()
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("error listing accounts: %v", err)
	}
	// iterate over accounts (map[string]btcutil.Amount) and write to stdout
	for label, amount := range accounts {
		log.Printf("%s: %s", label, amount)
	}

	// prepare a sendMany transaction
	receiver1, err := btcutil.DecodeAddress("1someAddressThatIsActuallyReal", &chaincfg.MainNetParams)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("address receiver1 seems to be invalid: %v", err)
	}
	receiver2, err := btcutil.DecodeAddress("1anotherAddressThatsPrettyReal", &chaincfg.MainNetParams)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("address receiver2 seems to be invalid: %v", err)
	}
	receivers := map[btcutil.Address]btcutil.Amount{
		receiver1: 42,  // 42 satoshi
		receiver2: 100, // 100 satoshi
	}

	// create and send the sendMany tx
	txSha, err := client.SendMany("some-account-label-from-which-to-send", receivers)
	if err != nil {
		log.Fatalf("error sendMany: %v", err)
	}
	log.Printf("sendMany completed! tx sha is: %s", txSha.String())
}

.NET (C#)

The communication with the RPC service can be achieved using the standard http request/response objects. A library for serializing and deserializing Json will make your life a lot easier:

Json.NET ( http://james.newtonking.com/json ) is a high performance JSON package for .NET. It is also available via NuGet from the package manager console ( Install-Package Newtonsoft.Json ).

The following example uses Json.NET:

 HttpWebRequest webRequest = (HttpWebRequest)WebRequest.Create("http://localhost.:8332");
 webRequest.Credentials = new NetworkCredential("user", "pwd");
 /// important, otherwise the service can't desirialse your request properly
 webRequest.ContentType = "application/json-rpc";
 webRequest.Method = "POST";
  
 JObject joe = new JObject();
 joe.Add(new JProperty("jsonrpc", "1.0"));
 joe.Add(new JProperty("id", "1"));
 joe.Add(new JProperty("method", Method));
 // params is a collection values which the method requires..
 if (Params.Keys.Count == 0)
 {
  joe.Add(new JProperty("params", new JArray()));
 }
 else
 {
     JArray props = new JArray();
     // add the props in the reverse order!
     for (int i = Params.Keys.Count - 1; i >= 0; i--)
     {
        .... // add the params
     }
     joe.Add(new JProperty("params", props));
     }
  
     // serialize json for the request
     string s = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(joe);
     byte[] byteArray = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(s);
     webRequest.ContentLength = byteArray.Length;
     Stream dataStream = webRequest.GetRequestStream();
     dataStream.Write(byteArray, 0, byteArray.Length);
     dataStream.Close();
     
     
     WebResponse webResponse = webRequest.GetResponse();
     
     ... // deserialze the response

There is also a wrapper for Json.NET called Bitnet (https://sourceforge.net/projects/bitnet) implementing Bitcoin API in more convenient way:

     BitnetClient bc = new BitnetClient("http://127.0.0.1:8332");
     bc.Credentials = new NetworkCredential("user", "pass");

     var p = bc.GetDifficulty();
     Console.WriteLine("Difficulty:" + p.ToString());

     var inf = bc.GetInfo();
     Console.WriteLine("Balance:" + inf["balance"]);

A more complete library and wrapper for Bitcoin is BitcoinLib (https://github.com/GeorgeKimionis/BitcoinLib) which is also available via NuGet from the package manager console (Install-Package BitcoinLib).

Querying the daemon with BitcoinLib is as simple as:

     IBitcoinService bitcoinService = new BitcoinService();

     var networkDifficulty = bitcoinService.GetDifficulty();
     var myBalance = bitcoinService.GetBalance();

Node.js

Example using bitcoin-core:

const Client = require('bitcoin-core');
const client = new Client({ 
  network: 'regtest', 
  username: 'user', 
  password: 'pass', 
  port: 18443 
});

client.getBlockchainInfo().then((help) => console.log(help));

Command line (cURL)

You can also send commands and see results using cURL or some other command-line HTTP-fetching utility; for example:

  curl --user user --data-binary '{"jsonrpc": "1.0", "id":"curltest", "method": "getinfo", "params": [] }' 
    -H 'content-type: text/plain;' http://127.0.0.1:8332/

You will be prompted for your rpcpassword, and then will see something like:

  {"result":{"balance":0.000000000000000,"blocks":59952,"connections":48,"proxy":"","generate":false,
     "genproclimit":-1,"difficulty":16.61907875185736},"error":null,"id":"curltest"}

Command line (jsonrpc-cli)

jsonrpc-cli provides simple json queries from the command-line with highlighted json results (colors) and the ability to view/debug raw http requests and responses.

 jsonrpc-cli --user=rpcuser --pass=rpcpassword  http://localhost:8332/ getinfo
{
    "version": 109900,
    "protocolversion": 70002,
    "walletversion": 60000,
    "balance": 0,
    "blocks": 588597,
    "timeoffset": -1,
    "connections": 9,
    "proxy": "127.0.0.1:9050",
    "difficulty": 9013786945891.682,
    "testnet": false,
    "keypoololdest": 1463279619,
    "keypoolsize": 101,
    "paytxfee": 0,
    "relayfee": 1.0e-5,
    "errors": null
}

Clojure

clj-btc is a Clojure wrapper for the bitcoin API.

user=> (require '[clj-btc.core :as btc])
nil
user=> (btc/getinfo)
{"timeoffset" 0, "protocolversion" 70001, "blocks" 111908, "errors" "",
 "testnet" true, "proxy" "", "connections" 4, "version" 80500,
 "keypoololdest" 1380388750, "paytxfee" 0E-8M,
 "difficulty" 4642.44443532M, "keypoolsize" 101, "balance" 0E-8M,
 "walletversion" 60000}

C

The C API for processing JSON is Jansson. C applications like libblkmaker use cURL for making the calls and Jansson for interpreting the JSON that cURL fetches.

For example basic usage (which can be easily modified for Bitcoin RPC), see the Jansson example github_commits.c and the associated tutorial.

The following does with libcurl what the cURL example above does:
#include <stdlib.h>

#include <curl/curl.h>

int main()
{
    CURL *curl = curl_easy_init();
    struct curl_slist *headers = NULL;

    if (curl) {
	const char *data =
	    "{\"jsonrpc\": \"1.0\", \"id\":\"curltest\", \"method\": \"getinfo\", \"params\": [] }";

	headers = curl_slist_append(headers, "content-type: text/plain;");
	curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, headers);

	curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_URL, "http://127.0.0.1:8332/");

	curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDSIZE, (long) strlen(data));
	curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, data);

	curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_USERPWD,
			 "bitcoinrpcUSERNAME:bitcoinrpcPASSWORD");

	curl_easy_setopt(curl, CURLOPT_USE_SSL, CURLUSESSL_TRY);

	curl_easy_perform(curl);
    }
    return 0;
}
This output can be parsed with Jansson, à la the Jansson tutorial linked to above.

(source: Bitcoin StackExchange)

Qt/C++

QJsonRpc is a Qt/C++ implementation of the JSON-RPC protocol. It integrates nicely with Qt, leveraging Qt's meta object system in order to provide services over the JSON-RPC protocol. QJsonRpc is licensed under the LGPLv2.1.

/*
 * Copyright (C) 2012-2013 Matt Broadstone
 * Contact: http://bitbucket.org/devonit/qjsonrpc
 *
 * This file is part of the QJsonRpc Library.
 *
 * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
 * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
 */
#include <QCoreApplication>
#include <QAuthenticator>
#include <QStringList>
#include <QDebug>

#include "qjsonrpchttpclient.h"

class HttpClient : public QJsonRpcHttpClient
{
    Q_OBJECT
public:
    HttpClient(const QString &endpoint, QObject *parent = 0)
        : QJsonRpcHttpClient(endpoint, parent)
    {
        // defaults added for my local test server
        m_username = "bitcoinrpc";
        m_password = "232fb3276bbb7437d265298ea48bdc46";
    }

    void setUsername(const QString &username) {
        m_username = username;
    }

    void setPassword(const QString &password) {
        m_password = password;
    }

private Q_SLOTS:
    virtual void handleAuthenticationRequired(QNetworkReply *reply, QAuthenticator * authenticator)
    {
        Q_UNUSED(reply)
        authenticator->setUser(m_username);
        authenticator->setPassword(m_password);
    }

private:
    QString m_username;
    QString m_password;

};

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    QCoreApplication app(argc, argv);
    if (app.arguments().size() < 2) {
        qDebug() << "usage: " << argv[0] << "[-u username] [-p password] <command> <arguments>";
        return -1;
    }

    HttpClient client("http://127.0.0.1:8332");
    if (app.arguments().contains("-u")) {
        int idx = app.arguments().indexOf("-u");
        app.arguments().removeAt(idx);
        if(idx<app.arguments().count())
              client.setUsername(app.arguments().takeAt(idx));
        else qDebug()<<"-u value not defined";
    }

    if (app.arguments().contains("-p")) {
        int idx = app.arguments().indexOf("-p");
        app.arguments().removeAt(idx);
        if(idx<app.arguments().count())
            client.setPassword(app.arguments().takeAt(idx));
        else qDebug()<<"-p value not defined";
    }

    QJsonRpcMessage message = QJsonRpcMessage::createRequest(app.arguments().at(1));
    QJsonRpcMessage response = client.sendMessageBlocking(message);
    if (response.type() == QJsonRpcMessage::Error) {
        qDebug() << response.errorData();
        return -1;
    }

    qDebug() << response.toJson();
}

Multi-wallet RPC calls

Bitcoin Knots 0.13.1 added support for loading multiple, separate wallets. Multi-wallet can be enabled by using more than one -wallet argument when starting Bitcoin, either on the command line or in the Bitcoin config file. This was also included in Bitcoin Core 0.15.

Wallet-level RPC calls (like importaddress or listtransactions) can specify which wallet file will be accessed. This is done by setting the HTTP endpoint in the JSON-RPC request in the format <RPC IP address>:<RPC port>/wallet/<wallet name>, for example https://127.0.0.1:8332/wallet/wallet1.dat.

The command line utility bitcoin-cli can specify the wallet file using the -rpcwallet flag, for example bitcoin-cli -rpcwallet=wallet1.dat getbalance

For more details see the Bitcoin Core 0.15 release notes

Alternatively (but not available in Bitcoin Core at this time), an additional parameter can be specified to -rpcauth naming a default wallet for JSON-RPC accesses to the normal endpoint.

See Also